The SALSA MLPA Probemix P226 SDH is an in vitro diagnostic (IVD)1
or research use only (RUO) semi-quantitative assay2
for the detection of deletions or duplications in SDHB
, and SDHAF2
genes in genomic DNA isolated from human peripheral whole blood specimens. P226 SDH is intended to confirm a potential cause for and clinical diagnosis of Hereditary Paraganglioma/Pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) and for molecular genetic testing of at-risk family members.
Copy number variations (CNVs) detected with P226 SDH should be confirmed with a different technique. In particular, CNVs detected by only a single probe always require confirmation by another method. Most defects in the SDHB
, and SDHAF2
genes are point mutations, none of which will be detected by MLPA. It is therefore recommended to use this assay in combination with sequence analysis.
Assay results are intended to be used in conjunction with other clinical and diagnostic findings, consistent with professional standards of practice, including confirmation by alternative methods, clinical genetic evaluation, and counselling, as appropriate. The results of this test should be interpreted by a clinical molecular geneticist or equivalent.
This device is not intended to be used for standalone diagnostic purposes, pre-implantation or prenatal testing, population screening, or for the detection of, or screening for, acquired or somatic genetic aberrations, e.g. from DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) or fresh tumour materials.
Please note that this probemix is for in vitro diagnostic (IVD) use in the countries specified at the end of this product description. In all other countries, the product is for research use only (RUO).
To be used in combination with a SALSA MLPA Reagent Kit and Coffalyser.Net analysis software.
Paragangliomas (PGLs) are neuroendocrine tumours that originate from neural crestderived cells. They arise from sympathetic or parasympathetic paraganglia tissues and can be situated in the head and neck region, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. Tumours that arise from the adrenal medulla are called pheochromocytomas (PCCs). Symptoms of PGL/PCC result either from mass effects (for example carotid body enlargement, visible in the neck) or catecholamine hypersecretion. Both parasympathetic and sympathetic PGLs are rare. Estimates of the overall incidence of parasympathetic PGLs range from 1 in 30.000 to 1 in 100.000.
The hereditary PGL/PCC syndromes are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Pathogenic variants in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes, including SDHA
, and SDHAF2
, cause PGL/PCC and occur in up to 40% of cases. Probes for SDHA
are not included in this P226 SDH probemix, but are included in probemix P429 SDHA-MAX. SDH genes are tumour suppressor genes and loss of heterozygosity is a second hit in tumours. SDHD
demonstrate parent-of-origin effects and generally cause disease only when the pathogenic variant is inherited from the father (Hao et al. 2009, Hensen et al. 2004), with a penetrance of 90% or higher by the age of 70. Mutations in SDHA
are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner with no parent-of-origin effect and show a low penetrance (Benn et al. 2006). Mutations in the SDHAF1
gene are a cause of SDH defective infantile leukoencephalopathy (Ghezzi D et al. 2009) and might cause PGL due to the function of SDHAF1
, but this has not been reported.
Approximately 30% of hereditary PGL/PCC syndrome is caused by pathogenic variants in the SDHD
gene, 22-38% in the SDHB
gene, 4-8% in the SDHC
gene, while for SDHAF2
it is unknown. The majority of mutations in the SDH genes are point mutations and small deletions. It is estimated that around 5-17% of pathogenic mutations in the SDHB
genes is attributed to large deletions/duplications, including the founder mutations: SDHB
Dutch founder deletion in exon 3 and the SDHB
Spanish founder deletion in exon 1 (Bayley et al. 2005, 2009, Buffet et al. 2012).
More information is available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1548/
The P226-D1 SDH probemix contains 45 MLPA probes with amplification products between 130 and 494 nt. This includes 9 probes for the SDHB
gene, 10 probes for SDHC
, 7 probes for SDHD
, 2 probes for SDHAF1
and 4 probes for SDHAF2
. In addition, 13 reference probes are included that detect autosomal chromosomal locations. Complete probe sequences and the identity of the genes detected by the reference probes are available online (www.mlpa.com
This probemix contains nine quality control fragments generating amplification products between 64 and 105 nt: four DNA Quantity fragments (Q-fragments), two DNA Denaturation fragments (D-fragments), one Benchmark fragment, and one chromosome X and one chromosome Y-specific fragment (see table below).
More information on how to interpret observations on these control fragments can be found in the MLPA General Protocol and online at www.mlpa.com